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Transferable Cluster Policies in the South East Europe Region
Predrag Matkovic, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics Subotica
Pere Tumbas, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics Subotica
Marton Sakal, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics Subotica
Tiberiu Diaconescu, Institute of Economic Forecasting, Bucharest, Romania


Abstract

Presence of a multitude of regulations in the area of cluster policies in EU member countries has not resulted in the expected outcomes. The degree of cluster development is exceedingly uneven among some European countries, as is the perception of their role and their importance in social and economic development of the EU and its member states. While clusters are recognized as agents of innovations for small and medium sized enterprises in some countries, cluster development is still in its infancy in other. What is recognized as the principal cause for unbalanced development are cluster policies, which however at the same time carry the potential for initiating future cluster development. Owing to the above mentioned differences in the perception and role of clusters in different EU countries, the research that this paper is based on started from interpreting cluster policies as a set of different regulations adopted in order to strengthen existing clusters and create a positive environment for developing new ones. Cluster policies can concern various areas, but in this analysis are treated with regard to the following six thematic areas: Research & development and innovation; Sustainability; Internationalization, cooperation and networking; Financing; Regional smart specialization; and New skills and jobs creation. The research problem of this paper is associated with the necessity for providing a strong basis for discovering transferable components of cluster policies thru identification and analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of regional cluster policies in South-East Europe (SEE) region. The data on regional cluster policies was gathered from relevant stakeholders in 10 countries of the specified region. The research itself was conducted by use of the modified SWOT method. A data gathering software solution was developed to facilitate the process and assure that the obtained data is more suitable for further analysis. The software solution was accompanied by a template defining the standards that the respondents observed while preparing their replies. Based on the gathered SWOT analyses of 28 respondents from SEE region, authors completed a regional quantitative and qualitative analysis of the cluster policies, and established the basis for regional learning and transfer of positive experiences in the region, which should stimulate development of clusters in the SEE area as the place of innovation.

Keywords: Cluster policies, positive experience, South East Europe region, SWOT analysis

Transferable Cluster Policies in the South East Europe Region  (.pdf, 152 KB)


Inovacije i preduzetništvo
Prof. dr Dušan Bobera

Nije potrebno gledati mnogo unapred da bi se suočili sa imperativom inoviranja. On pred nas iskače iz mnoštva definisanih i proklamovanih izjava o misiji, viziji, strategiji i sl. Zajedničko svima njima je, pored ostalog, isticanje značaja intenziteta važnosti koju inovacije imaju za „naše“ kupce/potrošače1, „naše“ akcionare, „naše“ poslovanje, i što je najvažnije za dugoročni opstanak preduzeća kroz njegov rast i razvoj. Premda se značaj inovacija ističe u svim propagandnim kampanjama one nisu samo marketinški hit. Inovacije generišu značajne razlike u svim organizacijama nezavisno o njihovom obliku i veličini. Radi se o veoma jednostavnoj logici I imperativu vremena i ambijenta u kojem preduzeća ostvaruju svoju misiju. Ovo ostvarenje je moguće opisati kao opasan rizik za dalji opstanak kojem se izlažu preduzeća koja ne uspevaju menjati ono što nude tržištu (manifestovanog u proizvodima ili uslugama) ili način na koji to stvaraju. Ovaj rizik proističe iz činjenice da postoje preduzeća koja će to biti u stanju uraditi U tom kontekstu treba navesti razmišljanja Natana Mirvolda, potpredsednika Microsofta, koji kaže da bez obzira koliko dobar proizvod imate preostaje vam samo 18 meseci da ga sami obezvredite novim proizvodom. Ukoliko to ne učinite vi sami učiniće konkurencija. Slično tome, Andy Groves, jedan od osnivača Intela, kaže da samo paranoici preživljavaju. (…)

Inovacije i preduzetništvo  (.pdf, 190 KB)


Implementacija i profitabilna eksploatacija uspešne inovacije
Prof. dr Dušan Bobera

Tehnologija, koja je sve donedavno smatrana rezidualnim faktorom pri objašnjavanju rasta outputa, univerzalno je prihvaćena kao fundamentalno sredstvo ekonomskog rasta i razvoja. S druge strane, tehnologija je i determinanta evolucije međunarodnih ekonomskih odnosa usled neujednačenog rasporeda tehnološkog razvoja. Tehnologija je postala integralna komponenta fundamentalnih pitanja koja se analiziraju i o kojima se pregovara, a međunarodni kod ponašanja pri transferu tehnologije pre je potreban zemljama u razvoju i nerazvijenim zemljama. Trgovačka konkurentnost i uloga tehnološke inovacije i tehnološkog transfera dobijaju posebno na značaju.
Kraći vremenski razmaci između sukcesivnih inovacija učinili su ljude svesnim uticaja tehnologije, a donosioce odluka podstakli da pretpostavljaju buduće efekte progresa u različitim oblastima. S druge strane, komparativna prednost se može stvoriti uz pomoć znanja, akumuliranog i generisanog u pojedinim preduzećima jedne zemlje, podsticanog inovacijom. Priroda inovacije i promene koje ona izaziva u preduzeću, relevantnost ključne tehnologije na konkurentnost i uticaj nacionalnog okruženja na tehnološku inovaciju, bitno je za uspeh ekonomija u tranzicij. (…)

Implementacija i profitabilna eksploatacija uspešne inovacije  (.pdf, 280 KB)


Kreiranje ambijenta i uslova za efektivnu inovaciju
Prof. dr Dušan Bobera

Visok i konstantno rastući stepen inovacija proizvoda i procesa predstavlja jednu od bitnih karakteristika savremenog poslovnog ambijenta na kojem preduzeća trebaju da ostvare svoj dugoročni opstanak kroz rast i razvoj. Tempo rasta stope inovacija predstavlja trend prisutan u svim tehnologijama, kako onim visokim tako i u zrelim. Ovo nas navodi na zaključak da inovacije nisu nekakav događaj koji se negde, nekada, slučajno, dogodi ili ne dogodi. Naprotiv, reč je o procesu njihovog nastanka koji se mora predviđati, planirati, organizovati, voditi, nadgledati i čiji se tok i ishod mora kontrolisati. Ovako shvaćen proces ne dozvoljava, i čini ga pogrešnim, zaključak da su neka preduzeća „rođena“ sa sposobnošću kreiranja i eksploatacije inovacija. Reč je o procesu učenja organizacije kako da ovaj proces razvijaju tokom vremena. Na prethodnim stranama je bilo reči o modalitetima prikupljanja i akumulacije resursa koji vode ka uspešnoj inovaciji. Ono što je bitno naglasiti, kada je o kreiranju povoljnog inovacionog ambijenta u organizaciji reč, je neophodnost spremnosti organizacije da na inovacioni proces ne gleda kao na lutriju već kao na kontinuiranu aktivnost koja se može i mora unapređivati. (…)

Kreiranje ambijenta i uslova za efektivnu inovaciju  (.pdf, 174 KB)


Barriers to Innovation in AP Vojvodina: Analysis of Data and Research Findings from the Aspect of Age and Gender
Dušan Bobera, PhD
Bojan Leković, M.Sc


Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to explore the barriers that inhibit the development of innovation and innovative culture within enterprises in AP Vojvodina as a north part of Republic of Serbia. A study was conducted to explore and define the barriers to innovation perceived by entrepreneurs with special direction on three groups of barriers: organizational, formal and informal. The questionnaire that was created for the purpose of this analysis and research consists of 24 questions covering up three groups of barriers to innovation. The survey was designed to capture information on the perceived barriers from the aspect of age and gender of entrepreneurs. Data collected are processed using the software package for statistical analysis -SPSS. Specifically, independent samples T-test were used to explore differences between these two groups of entrepreneurs.

Keywords: Barriers, Entrepreneurship, SME’s, Innovation

Barriers to Innovation in AP Vojvodina: Analysis of Data and Research Findings from the Aspect of Age and Gender  (.pdf, 282 KB)


Barriers to Innovation in Northern Backa County
Dušan Bobera, PhD

Abstract

The goal of this study is to explore and define the barriers to innovation perceived by entrepreneurs in Northern-Backa region. Therefore, this study identifies the most significant barriers that have strong, negative influence on a process of creating a healthy, competitive entrepreneurship environment for development of innovation. A study was conducted to identify the main barriers to innovation with special direction to three areas of barriers: organizational, formal and informal barriers.
An online questionnare that was created for the purpose of this analysis and research consists of 24 questions covering up 3 groups of barriers to innovation. In total, 26 entrepreneurs from the Northern-backa region completed the abovementioned questionnare. The survey was designed to capture information on the perceived barriers in entrepreneur business from the aspect of age and gender of entrepreneurs. Data collected are processed using the software package for statistical analysis -SPSS. Specificely, Mann-Whitney’s test was used to explore differences between these two groups of entrepreneurs.

Keywords: Barriers, Entrepreneurship, SME’s, Innovation

Barriers to Innovation in Northern Backa County  (.pdf, 380 KB)


Comparative Analysis of Entrepreneurship Obstacles: Findings from Serbia And Montenegro
Dušan Bobera, PhD

Abstract

Entrepreneurship is the best reflected in the areas that provide the most innovative possibilities and opportunities. Since it implies risk, uncertainty and creativity, it is important to analyze many obstacles that can harm the process so that those could be avoided or minimized. The purpose of this paper was to explore the barriers that inhibit the development of entrepreneurship in Republic of Serbia, in comparison with the Republic of Montenegro. A comparative analysis was conducted to identify the main barriers to entrepreneurship in these two regions, with special direction to three areas of barriers. An online questionnaire was used to identify the level of awareness of these barriers among entrepreneurs in target areas, as part of the larger study. An online questionnaire consisting of 15 questions, divided in 3 areas, was designed in Google questionnaire, an open source based survey tool. The survey was designed to capture information on the perceived barriers in entrepreneur business from the several aspects. Questionnaire was filed by 182 entrepreneur companies in both countries. Data analysis was made through the SPSS program for statistical analysis. There have been used statistical techniques: descriptive statistics, ANOVA test, t-test of independent samples. The aim of this research is to identify the most important obstacles in establishing and developing the entrepreneurial business in Serbia and Montenegro. Paper was divided in three parts. First, authors made a short theoretical overview on the literature of entrepreneurial process and barriers related to the Serbia and Montenegro. Second part was dedicated to the presentation of methodology used for the analysis of obtained sample of entrepreneurial companies. Third part was consisted from result discussion and some authors’ remarks for the future research and position of entrepreneurs in Serbia and Montenegro.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, barriers, human resources, subjective circumstances, fiscal burdens

Comparative Analysis of Entrepreneurship Obstacles: Findings from Serbia And Montenegro  (.pdf, 540 KB)


Impact of Clusters on University-Industry Interaction
Pere Tumbas, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics Subotica(SERBIA)
Aleš Lipnik, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics Subotica (SERBIA)
Predrag Matkovic, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics Subotica (SERBIA)
Marton Sakal, University of Primorska, Science and Research Centre, Koper (SLOVENIA)


Abstract

The South East Europe Transnational Programme project “Smarter Cluster Policies for South East Europe”, (ClusterPoliSEE) is being implemented in the period from 2012 till 2014. The project's main objective is to enhance the capacity of regional policy makers to develop smart specialization strategies for cluster improvement. 25 project partners cover 11 different SEE programme countries to develop smarter cluster policies supporting territorial cohesion, research and development and open innovation systems in the SEE region. The work plan spans six cross-cluster development areas: Innovation, R&D driven cluster development; Sustainability through cluster development; International cluster cooperation and networking; Financial framework improvement; Cluster and regional specialization and New skills and jobs creation. The key milestones in this project are to: (a) set up a collaborative ICT platform as a learning mechanism systems for partnership and relevant stakeholders aimed at improving SEE cluster policies through cooperative learning, policy transfer and information exchange between them; (b) provide an in-depth assessment of the regional cluster policies in the partners countries; (c) identify factors, tools, experiences, and best practices related to the six thematic areas; and (d) strengthen support to transnational cooperation for designing new strategies for project results sustainability and as contribution to support the South East Europe region as the place of innovation. This article presents a Triple Helix concept, with particular reference to the roles of the constituents of this concept – university, industry and government – in the implementation of the innovation system. It also presents the possible avenues of their interaction, pointing out individual categories of intermediaries, which play a particularly significant role. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of clusters and cluster policies in the region was conducted based on the data gathered by means of SWOT analysis and a questionnaire on the ClusterPoliSEE project, in order to establish the impact of clusters on university-industry interaction. These initial theoretical and empirical analysis activities served as a foundation for identifying activities that need improvement so as to raise the importance of clusters in the further development of university-industry cooperation.

Keywords: clusters, university, triple helix, interaction

Impact of Clusters on University-Industry Interaction  (.pdf, 256 KB)